ANALISIS DE ORINA DE GRAFF PDF

ANALISIS DE ORINA ATLAS COLOR [LAURINE GRAFF SISTER] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Get this from a library! Graff: análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales. [Lillian A Mundt; Laurine Graff; Kristy Shanahan]. Analisis de Orina Graff – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Analisis de orina.

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Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: In many cultures urine was once regarded as a mystical fluid, and in some cultures it is still regarded as such to this day.

Orija reactivity may also be seen when formalin is used as a preservative or when the hypertension medication captopril or high concentration of nitrite are present.

CS1 Spanish-language sources es CS1 maint: A positive test for leukocyte esterase normally indicates the presence of bacteria and a positive nitrite test although it is not always the case.

Orjna test is more sensitive to albumin because albumin contains more amino groups to accept the hydrogen ions than other proteins.

Retrieved 30 March hraff The reactions that take place in the test strip vary according to the manufacturer, but in reality there are two reactions that are most frequently used. Part of the urobilinogen is reabsorbed in the intestine then circulated in the blood to the liver where it is excreted.

The test can give false positives if strong oxidant or peroxide residues are present on the laboratory material used for the analysis. Poorly stored samples can yield false negative results as the urobilinogen suffers photo oxidation to urobilin that does not react. This thoroughly updated 5th Edition provides concise and carefully structured full-color instruction in the handling and analysis of non-blood body fluids.

The molecules with the greatest mass contribute more to the measure of specific gravity than smaller molecules.

Traditional reagent strip testing for protein uses the principle of the protein error of indicators to produce a visible colorimetric reaction. Vraff increase in the blood concentration of ketone produces a water-electrolyte imbalancedehydration and if not corrected, acidosis and in the end diabetic coma.

The pad also includes bromothymol blue which measures this change in pH.

On the one hand it provides information regarding the balance between acid and alkali in a patient and allows aanalisis of the substances that are present in the urine in crystalline form. The inflammation of the renal tissues interstitial orian can produce leukocyturia, in particular toxic interstitial nephritis with predominant eosinophils.

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Case studies and clinical situations show how work in the classroom translates to work in the lab. Therefore, sediments containing bacteria should be checked closely for the presence of red blood cells. Uromodulin is routinely produced in the distal convoluted tube, and forms the matrix of casts.

Views Read Edit View history. Some of the gram negative bacteria species that most commonly cause urinary tract infections Escherichia coliEnterobacterKlebsiellaCitrobacter and Proteus have enzymes that reduce the nitrate present in urine to nitrite. A urine test strip showing positive for blood can also indicate hemoglobinuriawhich is not detectable using a microscope due to the lysis of red blood cells in the urinary tract particularly in alkaline or dilute urineor intravascular hemolysis.

A false negative can occur in samples that have not been adequately stored due to volatilization and bacterial degradation. This conjugated bilirubin does not normally appear in the urine as it is excreted directly from the intestine in bile. Diets df in animal proteins tend to produce acidic urine, while diets mainly composed of vegetables tend to produce alkali urine.

Bilirubin is a highly pigmented compound that is a by-product of haemoglobin degradation.

Tira reactiva d’orina – Viquipèdia, l’enciclopèdia lliure

The normal number of red blood cells in urine should not usually exceed 3 per high power field. Working and living links. Once blood has been detected, the microscopic examination can be used to differentiate between hematuria and hemoglobinuria. Interpretation of trace readings can be difficult. In many liver diseases the patients often show signs of pathology only at a late stage.

Of the routine chemical tests performed on urine, the most abalisis of renal disease is the protein determination.

Urine test strip

Analissi are strips which serve different purposes, such as qualitative strips that only determine if the sample is positive or negative, or there are semi-quantitative ones that in addition to providing a positive or negative reaction also provide an estimation of a quantitative result, in the latter the colour reactions are approximately proportional to the concentration of the substance being tested for in the sample.

It uses case studies and clinical situations to promote problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. The bilirubin combines with a diazonium salt 2,4-dichloroaniline or 2,6-dichlorobenzene-diazonium-tetrafluoroborate in an acid medium to produce an azo dye with colouration that varies from pink to violet: The nitrite test is not particularly reliable and negative anlaisis in the presence of clinical symptoms are not uncommon, meaning that the test should not be taken as conclusive.

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Urine with a high specific gravity can also cause leukocyte crenation, hraff can impede the liberation of the esterases.

The esterase reaction needs about 2 minutes to take place. Some urine test strips are protected against the interference with iodate, which eliminates analisiz acid by oxidation.

Análisis de orina: atlas color

The formaldehyde used as a preservative produces false negatives in both reactions. Urine test strips are used for screening both in hospitals and in general practice. It uses procedure and summary boxes for quick reference. The indoxyl that is liberated combines with a diazonium analisjs in order to produce a violet coloured azole dye.

This complex process of reabsorption is usually one of the first renal functions to be affected by disease. Retrieved 13 March The strip is then left to stand for the time necessary for the reactions to occur usually 1 to 2 minutesand finally the colours that appear are compared against the chromatic scale provided by the manufacturer. Blood may be present in the urine orkna in the form of intact red blood cells hematuria or as the product of red blood cell destruction, hemoglobin hemoglobinuria.

The test method consists of immersing the test strip completely in a well mixed sample of urine for a short period of time, then extracting it from the container and supporting the edge of the strip over the mouth of the container to remove excess urine.

Contrary to the general belief that indicators produce specific colours in response to particular pH levels, certain indicators change colour in the presence of protein even though the pH of the medium remains constant. Many renal and urinary tract naalisis may be asymptomatic for a long period of time. The colours vary from dark blue with a reading of 1.