The aim of this article is to draw attention to the work of a conflict analyst whose theory of ‘protracted social conflict’ – developed in a sustained. A Theory of Protracted Social Conflict. Edward E Azar, one of the forefathers of the conflict resolution field was the first to the describe violent events in the. 2 See Edward E. Azar, The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory Theory of Protracted Social Conflict and the Challenge of Transforming Conflict.

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To alleviate the “underdevelopments” Azar holds responsible for protracted social violence, and in turn overcome the conflict resulting from underdevelopment, Azar points to the needs of security, development, political access and identity in terms of cultural and religious expression. Journal of Peace Research 38 3— Studying protracted conflict leads one to conclude that peace is development in the broadest sense of the term. This precondition also involves the reliance that many people have on their social groups; because governments in areas that experience protracted social conflict are often unable, incapable or unwilling to provide basic human necessities to the population, individuals turn to their social groups for stability.

The fourth and final stage of the ARIA model addresses the “why” and “who” of the conflict, as well as the “how” of cooperation through the tangible “what” of solutions.

The needs of the various parties are, in turn, the underlying causes of the conflict. Therefore, to be effective, a conflict resolution framework must specifically emphasize the needs and identities of the conflicting parties. Conflict process Dispute resolution Sectarian violence.

Among the Sinhalese, the anti-Tamil chauvinism started to spread and the Tamils were more and more disadvantaged and excluded. Identifying the root causes of the Rwanda conflict might provide a baseline for redressing the evils in the country.

By bringing animosities to the forefront, it is hoped that the mutual benefits of ending the conflict can be realized. The identity needs of all sides are brought to the forefront with the goal of getting “the disputants to move from positional bargaining to interest-based approaches.

This element, which contributes to the initial protraccted of protracted social conflict, consists of the fact that people involved in protracted social conflicts create their own identity groups. The dominant group isolates itself from the azarr of other groups, leading to an even bigger separation between groups even within an ethnicity. Azar states that protracted social conflicts can be characterized by “incompetent, parochial, fragile, and authoritarian governments that fail to satisfy basic human needs.


To socixl the dominance of the international economy, the country in question must work to build institutions that can ease global dependency and stimulate domestic economic growth. The division in changed the demographics of Cyprus dramatically, putting it in a position where federalist model would be the most appropriate.

When a protractted identity is threatened or frustrated, intractable conflict is almost inevitable. They run a parallel government in many areas of the north and east of Sri Lanka. It generally refers to conflicts described by other researchers as protracted or intractablei.

Metadata Show full item record. The incidents escalated into a war in Julyafter the island-wide pogrom against Tamils. In contrast to the model of interactive conflict resolution ICR that Fisher proposed inwhich includes identity as one of many human needs, the ARIA model “keeps its focus more narrowly attuned to identity issues cobflict particular.

But again, because of opposing interests all the proposals failed. Rothman developed a unique approach of conflict resolution that is specifically designed to mitigate protracted social conflict. But hostilities continued and conflictt intensified. However, it remains a challenge for conflict analysts and peace builders to arrive at an accurate assessment of the actual causes of the conflict for successful resolution and this provokes further analysis of the Rwanda conflict.

Some features of this site may not work without it. At this point, actors begin to see where their identities converge, and where they diverge.

Since the start of war there were some attempts to reach a ceasefire. The structure of the government needs to be changed so that all citizens are equally cared for and equally represented without bias or corruption. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia’s norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. The ARIA model is a comprehensive, yet specific approach to resolving protracted social conflict. Such identity-driven rifts are the result of an underlying fear of extinction that often grows within vulnerable ethnic groups who live with the memories or fear of persecution and massacre.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Protracted social conflict is a theory developed by Edward Azar. The major conflict began with the independence inwhen Greek community wanted a union enosis with Greece, to which the Turkish aza opposed. This involves the “political—economic relations of economic dependency within the international economic system, and the network of political-military linkages constituting regional and global patterns of clientage and cross-border interest.


To overcome this division of society, national identity must be stressed over individual group identity.

Protracted social conflict

Protracted social conflict is a technical term in a theory developed by Edward Azar. The pre proposals of different federal or centralist arrangements failed as one or the other side rejected them. Therefore, the theory needs to be accorded due recognition.

This first step focuses on the tangible “what of the conflict. Numerous peace proposals and plans have been made, but more or less unsuccessful.

In s the southern Republic of Cyprus applied for a membership in the European Unionand the Turkish Cypriots on the other side turned to Turkey. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 6— Views Read Edit View history. The resultant disconnection of society and the state can be linked to the colonial legacy, which, “artificially imposed European ideas of territorial statehood onto a multitude of communal groups.

The relevance of Edward Azar’s theory of protracted social conflict in the context of Rwanda

Conflict resolution can truly occur and last if satisfactory amelioration of underdevelopment occurs as well. This invasion caused an exodus of aboutGreek Cypriots to the south. Conflict resolution approaches that focus on resources, or the interests of parties, may be appropriate means of conflict resolution in conflicts where the only issues are those of resource protractes interests; however, in protracted social conflicts the main issue is identity-based. The war, that has continued since then, aocial almost completely disrupted civil administration in the northern province and caused economic devastation of the whole country.

From the research made, it has been found that Rwanda offers ample evidence to be referred to as a protracted social conflict.

When Greek Cypriots wanted to reduce autonomy and representation of Turkish Cypriots, the latter opposed it and intercommunal violence broke out.

Azar argued that the denial of basic human needs to a large portion of the population initiated instances of protracted social violence.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Prortacted Policy. The third stage is termed “inventing” and focuses on the “how” of “cooperatively resolving the conflict and its core through integrative solutions.